ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE
What is an Active Voice?
In a sentence, if the subject does any action, we call that sentence to be in the active voice.
E.g. Prasad hit the students.
In the above sentence, Prasad the subject of the sentence is doing some action. He is hitting the students. Hence, we can rightfully call that sentence to be in the active voice.
What is a Passive Voice?
In a sentence, if the subject doesn’t do any action but receives the action, we call that sentence to be in the active voice.
e.g. The students were hit by Prasad
In the above sentence, The students the subject of the sentence are not doing any action. They are receiving the action(beatings). Hence, we can rightfully call that sentence to be in the passive voice.
Why do we use the active voice?
We use the active voice to show the importance of the person or thing that is doing that action.
Why do we use the passive voice?
We use the passive voice to show the importance of the person or thing who receives the action. The passive voice is used mostly in writing than in speaking.
What are the guidelines to change the active to passive voice?
The guidelines to change the active to passive are as follows:-
- Check the tense of the sentence.
- Take the object of the active sentence as the subject of the passive sentence.
- A BE form verb is used with the main verb according to the number and tense of the sentence
- The main verb of the sentence is changed to its past participle form
- The preposition BY is written after the past participle
- The subject of the active voice becomes the object of the passive voice.
(If there is a pronoun used as the subject in the active voice, then the pronoun undergoes a change)
I > me; We > us; You remains you; he > him; she > her; It remains it; They > them; etc.
Note: When we check the tense of the sentence, we must follow the formula of the sentence. If we don’t follow the formula, there are chances that we take the complement of the sentence as the object.
Subject + Verb + Object + Complement (Active voice)
Ravi speaks English at home (English is the object and at home is the complement. Don’t take the complement as the object.)
Subject +Be form verb + Past Participle + By + Object + Complement
English is spoken by Ravi at home
The Be Form Verbs: Am, is, are (present tense); was, were (past tense); been (perfect tense); being (continuous tense); be (modals)
Table – 1
|Tense||Singular/Plural||Active Voice||Passive Voice|
|Simple Present Tense||Singular
|Ram writes a letter
They write letters
|A letter is written by Ram
Letters are written by them
|Present Continuous Tense||Singular
|I am writing a letter
They are writing letters
|A letter is being written by me
Letters are being written by them
|Present Perfect Tense||Singular
|Kala has written a letter
Ram and Shyam have written letters
|A letter has been written by Kala
Letters have been written by Ram and Shyam
|Simple Past Tense||Singular
|Ramu wrote a letter
Girls wrote the addresses
|A letter was written by Ramu
Addresses were written by girls
|Past Continuous Tense||Singular
|He was writing a book
They were writing answers
|A book was being written by him
Answers were being written by them
|Past Perfect Tense||Singular
|Latha had written questions
We had scolded them
|Questions had been written by Latha
They had been scolded by us
|Modals||Kala will write a letter||A letter will be written by Kala|
|Mala would write a letter||A letter would be written by Mala|
|Radha shall write a letter||A letter should be written by Radha|
|Mohan can write a letter||A letter could be written by Mohan|
|We could write letters||Letters could be written by Us|
|She may write a letter||A letter may be written by her|
|They might write a letter||A letter might be written by them|
|You ought to write a letter||A letter ought to be written by you|
|Sheela needs to write a letter||A letter needs to be written by Sheela|
|He writes a letter||A letter is written by him|
|He speaks the truth||The truth is spoken by him|
|They did the work||The work was done by them|
|She made a mistake||A mistake was made by her|
|She sang a song||A song was sung by her|
|Narayana Shetty sells sugar||Sugar is sold by Narayana Shetty|
|He threw stones at his shop||Stones were thrown by him at his shop|
|Lalitha prepares food in the kitchen||Food is prepared by Lalitha in the kitchen|
|She lodged a complaint against Ravi||A complaint was lodged by her against Ravi|
|We celebrated Independence Day on 15th August||Independence day was celebrated by us on 15th August|
|They play football everyday||Football is played by them everyday|
|I made him the captain of the team||He was made the captain of the team by me|
|She gave me a book||I was given a book by her|
|They gave us rings||We were given rings by them|
|He narrated the children a story||The children were narrated a story by them|
|She gave a dictionary to me||A dictionary was given by her to me|
|Ravi showed us a way||We were shown a way by Ravi|
|The policeman has arrested him||He has been arrested by the policeman|
|I had not planned any of this||Any of this had not been planned by me|
|He had kept the book in the bag||The book had been kept in the bag by him|