What are direct and indirect or reported speech ?

What are direct and indirect or reported speech ?

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH or (REPORTED SPEECH)

 There are two ways of communicating what a person has said. One way of communicating is to quote directly what has been said and the other way is to report what has been said.

 e.g.       Raju said, “I am studying in 10th Standard”. (Direct Speech)

            Raju said that he was studying in 10th standard. (Indirect or Reported speech)

 In direct speech, the exact words of the speaker are repeated.  These words are placed within inverted commas and a comma or colon is placed before these words. In Indirect speech, the comma after the reporting verb and the inverted commas are removed. The conjunction ’that’ is used to join the two parts – the spoken part and the introductory part of the sentence.

 

Guidelines for changing sentences from direct speech into indirect speech:

 

  1. If the reporting verb is in the present tense or future tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech does not change.

           

He says, “I am studying well”.

 Reporting verb   Reporting speech

            He says that he is studying well

 

(b)        She will say,  “I will do the job”.

            She will say that she will do the job.

 

  1. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the verbs in the direct speech are changed into their corresponding past forms as shown in the table below:

                                                           

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense
Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Simple Past Tense Past Perfect Tense
Past Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense

 

Examples:

  1. Suma said, “I work hard”. (Simple present tense)

            Suma said that she worked hard. (Simple past tense)

 

  1. The inspector said, “I am visiting some villages”. (present continuous tense)

            The inspector said that he was visiting some villages.(past continuous tense)

 

  1. They said, “We have caught the thief”. (Present Perfect Tense)

            They said that they had caught the thief. (Past Perfect Tense)

 

  1. Murthy said, “I have been living in that house for three years”. (Present Perfect Continuous Tense)

            Murthy said that he had been living in that house for three years. (Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

 

  1. Padma said, “I did not punish him”. (Simple Past Tense)

            Padma said that had not punished him. (Past Perfect Tense)

 

  1. Raju said, “I was ironing my shirt in the morning”. (Past Continuous Tense)

            Raju said that he had been ironing his shirt in the morning.(Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

 

  1. The student said, “I had forgotten to bring my text book”. (Past Perfect Tense)

            The student said that he had forgotten to bring his text book. (Past Perfect Tense)

 

  1. Balu said, “I had been waiting for my friend for a long time”. (Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

            Balu said that he had been waiting for his friend for a long time. (Past Perfect Continuous tense)

 

 

 

 

Some changes while making the direct into indirect speech

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
I   becomes He or She or remains unchanged depending on the person who says it.
We becomes They or remains unchanged depending on the person who says it.
You becomes He/she, it, I, We, They, depending on the person who says it.
Who, she, it, they Remain unchanged
Today becomes That day
Yesterday becomes The previous day or the day before
To night becomes That night
Last week becomes The previous week
Next week becomes The following week
Ago becomes Before
Now becomes Then
Here becomes There
This becomes That
These becomes Those
Just becomes Then

With the examples given, change the following into indirect speech:

  1. She says, “I am a doctor”.
  2. The teacher says, “I am punctual”.
  3. The boy said, “I go to school to learn”.
  4. The Prime Minister said, “It gives me great pleasure to be here this morning”.
  5. They said, “We did not make mistakes”.
  6. Mahesh said, “Kodanda cheats. He charges higher prices”.
  7. Shekar said, “I do not know what made me say it”.
  8. The Inspector said, Mr. Reddy, “I shall visit your school as soon as possible”.
  9. I said to him, “You have taken my purse”.
  10. She said to me, “You did not admit your mistakes”.
  11. He said to her, “I bought these books yesterday”.
  12. He said, “Ram, take that bird away”.
  13. He said tome, “What do you want?”
  14. Krishna said, “Gopal, will you change places with me?”
  15. Gulnaz said, “Kosar, have you written the letter?”

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